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Copyright: UCT Prague 2017
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REPARES (Research Platform on Antibiotic Resistance Spread through Wastewater Treatment Plants), a consortium of leading academic, industry, and policymakers knowledgeable in the Antibiotic Resistance (AR) subject, is geared towards contributing excellence in research on the spread of AR in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs).

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 ◳ 1 (png) → (ořez 215*215px)

 

The REPARES Team, mostly made up of academic leaders from top universities across Europe, has established strong cooperation with leading European innovators and internationally renowned experts in the water-related antibiotic resistance field.

 

  • UCT will coordinate and work with AR experts to provide methodologies and development of the REPARES platform
  • UCP will leverage its expert leadership in wastewater-mediated antibiotic resistance.
  • TUDelft will deliver methods to apply for international projects successfully.
  • Wetsus will propel cooperation with the non-academic sector.
  • AAU will integrate the REPARES database within the world-accepted MiDAS.
  • UW will do the bioinformatics and the validation of qPCR primers.

 

Background

Antibiotics were developed in 1940 solely for the treatment of infections in humans and animals. Over the years, diseases considered deadly were considered non-issues due to the effectiveness of these medicines. Regrettably, the benefits of antibiotics have been hampered by the development of resistance to antibiotics by bacteria. In recent times certain antibiotics used to eradicate some bacteria have become inactive. Antibiotic resistance (AR) has become prevalent, spreading primarily in populations and the environment. Thus, the development and proliferation of antibiotic resistance are classified among major global threats by the World Health Organization ( ). In addition, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control described the colossal effect of AR on the human population resulting in approximately 25,000 deaths per annum, costing the health care sector over  1.5 billion every year.

Proper sanitation of the water cycle is essential to sustain environmental and human health. The role of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and their microbiomes as putative hotspots for the proliferation of antibiotic resistance has questioned how effective these treatment systems are. Increasingly rising public, stakeholders, and governmental perception on this issue has highlighted the need for new quality criteria and installation upgrades.

Despite the gravity of the AR problem, in the wastewater sector, methodological biases have been the sole limiting factor on adequately monitoring the emission, fate, and possible amplification or removal of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) across WWTPs. Indeed, there is an urgent need to develop standardized methods and a well-curated database for accurate identification, characterization, and quantification of antibiotic resistance in such complex water matrices as wastewater. These issues are what REPARES aims to solve during the project period.

 ◳ 2 (png) → (ořez 215*215px)REPARES Goals

REPARES aims at advancing the European community’s know-how on antibiotic resistance across sanitation waterways, which in the future will bring society closer to achieving the Sustainable Development Goal of the United Nations. REPARES will act as an important vector to disseminate information on antimicrobial resistance spread within European WWTPs beyond science and technology to reach the academic and non-academic communities utilizing open events, popularization publications, and operation of the REPARES web platform.

Duration of Project

1 October 2019 - 30 September 2022

The relevance of research on antibiotic resistance

  • Antibiotics are one of the common contaminants in wastewater.
  • The increased bacterial antibiotic resistance stems from the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the transfer of resistance genes.
  • Antibiotic resistance can be acquired through random gene mutations and/or by horizontal gene transfer.
  • The World Health Organization qualified antibiotic resistance development as a significant global threat to society.

REPARES Objectives ◳ Untitled design (jpg) → (originál)

  • The increasing level of UCT’s scientific excellence
  • Improving scientific profiles of UCT’s researchers
  • Increasing UCT’s ability to apply for international projects successfully
  • Fostering cooperation with the non-academic sector
  • Advancing European community’s know-how on antibiotic resistance occurrence and spread in Europe
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Webpage under serious reconstruction! Be back soon!

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Webpage under serious reconstruction! Be back soon!

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Webpage under serious reconstruction! Be back soon!

Newsletter 1 (May 2020)

Newsletter 2 (November 2020)

Newsletter 3 (March 2021)

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 ◳ Graphical abstract (png) → (originál)

Do you think that when you get rid of bacteria in the toilet, it’s over?

Wrong! You send them to a party to make new friends, share experiences, food, and genetic information. Let's see together what is going on at such a party and how it relates to us. Can antibiotics stop all the bacteria? Certainly not all of them, the unstoppable are called superbugs.

Let's see what are these antibiotic-resistant bacteria and what can we do to avoid them...

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Research platform on antibiotic resistance spread through wastewater treatment plants

 ◳ Bartacek 5 (jpg) → (ořez 215*215px)

 

Jan Bartáček

Project Coordinator, UCT Prague

repares@vscht.cz

 ◳ Pokorna Lucie 6 (jpg) → (ořez 215*215px)

 

Lucie Pokorná

Project Administration, Webmaster

repares@vscht.cz

 ◳ Ojobe Lois (jpg) → (ořez 215*215px)

 

Bukola Lois Ojobe

Webmaster

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DATA


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    [nazev] => Antibiotic Resistance
    [seo_title] => Antibiotic Resistance
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    [autor] => Ivone vaz Moreira, Celia M. Manaia
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What is antibiotic resistance?

Antibiotic resistance is the capacity of bacteria to survive or proliferate in presence of antibiotics. Many bacteria in nature have this capacity. Most of the antibiotics commercially available nowadays are derivatives of natural compounds produced by bacteria and/or fungi. 

More information

In nature, microorganisms may use antibiotics as a defense mechanism, by inhibiting the growth of competitors, but antibiotics may have other roles.

Before the introduction of antibiotics in the 1940s as therapeutic agents antibiotics were only found in nature. After that period, the increasing uses in human medicine for bacterial infection therapy, and in veterinary for growth-promotion or infection prophylaxis contributed to a widespread occurrence of antibiotics and, with them, antibiotic-resistant bacteria.  Indeed, the increasing use of antibiotics, and other substances with antimicrobial activity, pushed antibiotic-resistant bacteria to reach new habitats, waters, soil, wildlife...

How can bacteria become resistant to antibiotics?

Antibiotic resistance may be intrinsic or acquired. Intrinsic resistance is characteristic of a bacterial species or genus, it is present in most or all members of that group and probably it was inherited from their evolutionary ancestors.

More information

Hence, it is part of the genome of most members of the group, it will be favored by antibiotic selective pressure, and is always transmitted vertically, i.e. from parent cells to the progeny. Intrinsic antibiotic resistance can be associated with structural or functional characteristics of a species, for example, due to the absence of a peptidoglycan cell wall or the existence of an external membrane, typical of Gram-negative bacteria.

 ◳ Andersson and Gughes (jpg) → (originál)

Andersson and Hughes, 2010

The type of antibiotic resistance that is considered a major disseminating threat is, however, acquired. This means that is a property that develops in a bacterial cell that was once susceptible to a given antibiotic. This process may occur due to point (or gene) mutations or, more frequently, through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). HGT is a major driver of bacterial evolution and consists in the transfer of genetic material from a donor to a recipient cell, in general, it requires that both share the same space, but not necessarily the same species. HGT can occur by transformation, consisting on the uptake of naked DNA (on plasmids or as linear DNA), for example, released by dead cells; transduction, mediated by bacteriophages (the virus of bacteria); or conjugation, involving cell-to-cell contact through a pilus. In general, HGT processes are potentiated by genetic elements that facilitate the mobilization and integration of exogenous DNA, either between cells or between chromosomal DNA, and extrachromosomal genetic elements and vice versa. Examples of these genetic elements are plasmids, transposons, and integrons, in which many of the known antibiotic resistance genes are inserted.

Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance

The mechanisms of antibiotic resistance comprise i) modifications of the antibiotic, ii) prevention of antibiotic action (by decreasing penetration or actively extruding the antimicrobial compound), and iii) changes and/or bypass of target sites. 

More information

More detail about these mechanisms is available in several publications, as for example:

 ◳ Yelin and Kishony (jpg) → (originál)Yalin and Kishony 2018

How antibiotic resistance does spread?

Human activities lead to the continuous discharge of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes to the environment, which accumulates and spread over different environmental compartments. Although the natural antibiotic resistome (collection of antibiotic resistance genes naturally occurring in the environment) was the origin of the antibiotic-resistance genes that are currently of major concern at the clinical level, it is the contaminant resistome (collection of antibiotic resistance genes resulting from human activities) that represents the major risk of transmission to humans.

More information

The high loads of contaminant antibiotic-resistant bacteria continuously discharged to the environment, and the fact that the contaminant resistome comprises bacteria and genes that coevolved with animals and humans, hence with higher chances of colonizing humans and animals, are major reasons to give the contaminant resistome particular attention. However, only some bacteria constituting the contaminant resistome may have the capacity to colonize humans (the vectors), being pivotal for assessing the risks of transmission of antibiotic resistance from the environment to humans. Other bacteria of the contaminant resistome that, for some reason, cannot colonize humans (the carriers), also have a role in the spread of antibiotic-resistance genes in the environment and may contribute to the enrichment of vectors of antibiotic-resistance genes.



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 ◳ Manaia 2017 (jpg) → (originál)Manaia 2017

References:

  • Blair, J. M., Webber, M. A., Baylay, A. J., Ogbolu, D. O., & Piddock, L. J. (2015). Molecular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Nature reviews microbiology, 13(1), 42-51.
  • D’Costa, V. M., King, C. E., Kalan, L., Morar, M., Sung, W. W., Schwarz, C., ... & Wright, G. D. (2011). Antibiotic resistance is ancient. Nature, 477(7365), 457-461.
  • Andersson, D. I., & Hughes, D. (2010). Antibiotic resistance and its cost: is it possible to reverse resistance?. Nature Reviews Microbiology8(4), 260-271.
  • Munita, J. M., & Arias, C. A. (2016). Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Virulence mechanisms of bacterial pathogens, 481-511.
  • Yelin, I., & Kishony, R. (2018). Antibiotic resistance. Cell172(5), 1136-1136.
  • Manaia, C. M. (2017). Assessing the risk of antibiotic resistance transmission from the environment to humans: non-direct proportionality between abundance and risk. Trends in microbiology25(3), 173-181.

 

 

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Antibiotic consumption

Human antimicrobial consumption database (ESAC-Net) from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC)

ECDC/EFSA/EMA second joint report on the integrated analysis of the consumption of antimicrobial agents and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from humans and food‐producing animals

European Surveillance of Veterinary Antimicrobial Consumption (ESVAC) from the European Medicines Agency (EMA)


Antimicrobial resistance

Antimicrobial resistance in Europe - Data visualization tool from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC)

ECDC Surveillance Atlas of Antimicrobial resistance

European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST)

ResistanceMap - an interactive collection of charts and maps that summarize national and subnational data on antimicrobial use and resistance worldwide, by The Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP)


Antibiotic resistance genes

The Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD)

ARGs-OSP: Antibiotic-Resistant Genes Online Searching Platform

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Information sources

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FAQs

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UCT Prague
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